March 2009

I used this module for my lecture at the UP-PGH in January 17, 2007. It was originally posted at :


Legal and Ethical Aspects of Family Planning

University of the Philippines, College of Medicine University of the Philippines

“Ethics, Justice & Women’s Reproductive & Sexual Health:  Issues in Family Planning”
By Atty. Carolina S. Ruiz-Austria
Senior Lecturer, UP College of Law

Learning Objectives:

At the end of the session, students shall have:

1. Familiarity with the basic links between law, medicine and ethics on the issue of Women’s Reproductive Health

2. Familiarity with Emerging International Human Rights and Women’s Human Rights Frameworks on Reproductive and Sexual Health

3. Familiarity with applicable International and National Laws that give basis for family planning as a legal entitlement and as a human right

4. Discussed the specific and common violations on a person’s rights when there is selective or inadequate access to all family planning methods

5. Reflected on the social role and ethical responsibilities taken on by physicians in the provision of family planning counseling and service

Advance Preparation/ Materials Needed:

1. Prepare all the references and training materials in relation to the
2. Read relevant materials/references in advance so you can easily refer the participants to the relevant sections during the discussions

2.1 Laws (Selected 1987 Constitution Provisions)

1987 Philippine Constitution

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), []

General Recommendation No. 24 [Available at: CEDAW GR24]

2.2 Aguiling-Pangalangan, E. Reproductive, Health, Rights and their Progeny: Norms in Case and Statute Law, Ch II

Cook, Rebecca J., Human Rights Law and Safe Motherhood (1998) 5 European Journal of Health Law 357-375, [Available for download at:  EJHealth Law]

FIGO International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Committee for the Ethical Aspects. of Human Reproduction and Women’s Health, Ethical Guidelines [PDF Available for download at: FIGO]


Course Description

Persons and Family Relations is a (4) four unit course and a bar subject. It covers the preliminary titles of the Civil Code, the Family Code as well as supplementary laws on marriage, children and the family. This course syllabus integrates components of the UNIFEM-LEGIS CURRENTS Project, which incorporates a framework and discussions of Women’s Human Rights.

Main References

A. Tolentino, Civil Code of the Philippines-Commentaries and Jurisprudence

A. Sempio-Dy, Handbook on the Family Code of the Philippines (Cases and Comments)

New Civil Code of the Philippines (NCC), Articles 1-51; Articles 254-257; 305-310; 356-396; 407-413 (Republic Act No. 386)

Family Code of the Philippines (FC) (Executive Order 209)

Supplementary Materials

Marriage Law (Act 3613)

Civil Registry Law (Act No. 3753)

Inter-Country Adoption Act of 1995 (Republic Act No.8043)

Domestic Adoption Act of 1998 (Republic Act No.8552)

Child Youth and Welfare Code (P.D. 603)

Code of Muslim Personal Laws (P.D. 1083)

Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)


Part1: Course Overview and Introduction to the Civil Code and Preliminary Title

Part 2: Introduction to the Family Code

Part 3: General Provisions: Persons, Civil Personality & Citizenship and Domicile

Part 4: Marriage, Formal and Essential Requisites

Part 5: Rights & Obligations Between Husbands & Wives

Part 6: Void & Voidable Marriages and Legal Separation

Mid-Term Exam: August 23, 2008

Part 7: Support, Parental Authority, Emancipation and Age of Majority

Part 8: Paternity and Filiation, Adoption, Summary & Judicial Provisions

Part 9: Review of Key Provisions

Final Examination Week: October 13-21


Class attendance is mandatory and will consist of 15 % of the final grade. Class Participation (Graded Recitation is 20 % and quizzes, 15 % of the final grade respectively. Two exams shall be given comprising 20% for the Mid Term Examination and 30% for the Final Exams. Students who miss three or more quizzes shall get an automatic 5 for the missed quizzes. No make-up quizzes will be given. A smoke-up list shall be made available after the mid-term examination in order to advise students with failing marks to drop the course on or before the deadline on September 8, 2008.


Part 1: Course Overview and Introduction to the Civil Code and Preliminary Title

(1) The Concept of Civil Law, Influences of Philippine Civil Law

(2) The Effect and Application of Laws (Art.1-18, NCC)

(3) Human Relations (Art.19-36, NCC)

Part 2: Introduction to the Family Code

(4) Laws on the Family and Marriage & the concept of “Family”

(5) Women’s Status and Equality in Marriage and the Family : CEDAW, Art.16

Part 3: Persons, Civil Personality & Citizenship and Domicile

(6) Persons, Civil Personality, Natural & Juridical Persons

(7) Citizenship & Domicile

Part 4: Marriage, Formal and Essential Requisites

(8) Marriage, Definition

(9) Requisites of Marriage : Formal and Essential Requisites

(10)Valid Marriage License ; Valid Marriage Ceremony

Part 5: Rights & Obligations Between Husbands & Wives

(11) Obligations between the Husband and Wife

(12) The Family Home & Property Relations

(a) Marriage Settlements, Donations

(b) Absolute Community & Conjugal Partnership

(c) Separation of Property and Property Relations of Unions

without Marriage

(d) The Family Home

Part 6: Void & Voidable Marriages and Legal Separation

(13) Lack of Essential and Formal Requisites

(14) Psychological Incapacity

(15) Incestuous Marriages and Marriages Void for reasons of Public Policy;

Presumptive Death

(16) Deficiency in Consent; Prohibition on Collusion

(17) Legal Separation

Mid-Term Exam: August 7, 2008

Part 7: The Family/Family Relations; Support, Parental Authority, Emancipation and Age of Majority

(18) The Family & Family Relations

(19) Support, Definition, Who are Entitled to Support

(20) Amount, Liability, How to Fulfill; Non-Levy of Support

(21) Support Pendente Lite; Reimbursement and Contractual Support

(22) Parental Authority, Definition and Character of Responsibility;

Rights and Duties

(23) Civil Liability for Damages ; Child’s Property

(24) Loss of Parental Authority and Substitute Parental Authority;

Disciplinary Measures

(25) Emancipation

Part 8: Paternity and Filiation, Adoption, Summary & Judicial Provisions

(26) Concept of Legitimacy: Legitimated Children; Extension of Legitimacy by

Legal Fiction and Adopted Children

(27) Action to Claim Legitimacy

(28) Adoption

(29) Summary Judicial Proceedings

Part 9: Review of Key Provisions

Final Examination Week: October 13-21

View Complete Syllabus here (Last Updated:April 2009)  syllabusCSRUIZA

Abadilla v Tabiliran Jr. 249 SCRA 447

ABS-CBN v Court of Tax Appeals L-52306 12 October 1981

Adriano v De Jesus 23 Phil 350

Agapay v Palang 276 SCRA 341

Agapito v Molo 50 Phil 779

Aguillon v Director of Lands 17 Phil 507

Ahern v Julian 39 Phil 607

Alano v Florido 61 Phil 303

Almacen v Baltazar 103 Phil 114

Andal v Macaraeg 89 Phil 165

Antonio v Reyes, G.R. 155800, March 10, 2006*

Araneta v Arreglado 104 Phil 529

Araneta v Concepcion and Benitez Araneta L-9667 31 July 1956, O.G. 5165

Arroyo v Vasquez de Arroyo 42 Phil 54

Atienza v J. Brillantes 243 SCRA 32

Babiera v Catotal 333 SCRA 487

Balboa v Farrales 52 Phil 498

Baluyot v Baluyot L-33659 14 June 1990

Bank of P.I. v Posadas 56 Phil 215

Barnuevo v Fuster 29 Phil 606

Barredo v Soriano 73 Phil 607

Barrueco v Consul General 74 Phil 151

Benedicto v De La Rama 3 Phil 34

Benitez-Badua v CA 299 SCRA 468

Bismorte v Aldecoa 17 Phil 480

Bobis v Bobis G.R. 138509 31 July 2000

Bowers v Roxas 69 Phil 626

Briones v Miguel GR 156343 18 October 2004

Brown v Yambao 102 Phil 168

Bucat v Mangahas 72 Phil 19

Buenventura v Bautista CA O.G. 3679

Cabatana v CA and Regodos G.R. 124814 21 October 2004

Cabatbat-Lim v IAC 166 SCRA 451

Cariňo v Cariňo, G.R. 102569, 2 February 2001

Chi Ming Tsoi v C.A. and Gina La-Tsoi, G.R. 119190 16 January 1997

Coingco v Flores 82 Phil 284

Colesterio v Colesterio G.R. 136467 6 April 2000

Cononizado v Almeda-Lopez 109 Phil 1169

Contreras v Macaraig 33 SCRA 222

Crespo v Tinio 62 Phil 202

Cruz v Catandes 39 O.G. No. 18, p. 324

Dadivas v Villanueva 54 Phil 92

Dael v IAC 171 SCRA 524

Dayrit v Judge Piccio 92 Phil 729

De Ansaldo v Sheriff of Manila 64 Phil 156

De Jesus v Syquia 58 Phil 866

De Leon v RFC 36 SCRA 289

De Loria v Felix 104 Phil 1

De Los Santos v Luciano 60 Phil 328

De Ocampo v Delizo 69 SCRA 216

De Ocampo v Florencio L-13553 23 February 1960

Del Rosario v Del Rosario CA 46 O.G. 6122

Dempsey v RTC 164 SCRA 384

Domingo v C.A. 226 SCRA 572

Duncan v CFI of Rizal 69 SCRA 298

Elcano v Hill 77 SCRA 89

Espiritu v CA, G.R. No. 115640 March 15, 1995*

Eugenio v J. Velez, G.R. 85140 17 May 1990

Ferrazini v Gsell 34 Phil 693

Firestone Tire and Rubber Co v Lariosa and NLRC L-70479 27 February 1987

Flores v Esteban 97 Phil 439

Flores v Flores 48 Phil 288

Floresca v Philex Mining GR 30642 30 April 1985

Francisco v Zulueta 61 Phil 752

Gabriel v Gabriel, C.A., 56 O.G. 3555

Gahn v Darby 36 La.Ann.70

Garcia v Santiago 53 Phil 952

Gayon v Gayon 36 SCRA 104

Ginez v Bugayong 100 Phil 616

Giota v Campos Rueda 35 Phil 252

Gonzaga v de David L-14858 29 December 1960

Gonzales v Miller 69 Phil 340

Gualberto v CA, G.R. No. 154994. June 28, 2005*

Gutierrez v Gutierrez 56 Phil 177

Hardling v Commercial Union Ass. Co. 38 Phil 464

Hartake v Frankel 54 Phil 156

Hawkins v Hwakins 286 Pac.747

Hontiveros v RTC 309 SCRA 340

In Re Sztraw 81 Phil 461

In Re: Filart 40 Phil 205

In re: Jose Bernas and Pilar Bernas 14 SCRA 327

Intestate Estate of Benito Marcelo 60 Ohil 442

Jimenez v Caňizarez L-12790 31 August 1960

Jison v CA 286 SCRA 495

Jocson v Empire Insurance Co. 103 Phil 580

Jocson v Jocson Vasquez 170 SCRA 333

Jones v Hortiguela 64 Phil 179

Jovellanos v CA 210 SCRA 126

Juarez v Turon 51 Phil 736

Lacson v Lacson 24 SCRA 837

Landicho v Relova 22 SCRA 731

Lao v Dee Tim 45 Phil 739

Laperal v Republic 6 SCRA 357

Lapuz Sy v Eufemio 43 SCRA 177

Leouel Santos and Rosario Bedia Santos v CA 242 SCRA 407

Leuterio v CA G.R. 84647 17 May 1991

Libi v IAC 214 SCRA 17

Lichauco v Apostol 44 Phil 138

Lim v Garcia 7 Phil 33

Llorente v Court of Appeals G.R. 124371 23 November 2000

Lorenzo v Nicolas 91 Phil 686

Lorenzo v Posadas 64 Phil 353

Lukban v Republic 52 O.G. 1141

Madridejo v De Leon 55 Phil 1

Manacop v CA 277 SCRA 57

Manalansan v Manalang 108 Phil 104

Mangoma v Macaraeg 90 Phil 508

Manila Trading Co. V Reyes 62 Phil 461

Maramba v Lozano 20 SCRA 474

Marcelo v Estacio 70 Phil 145

Marcos v Marcos 343 SCRA 755

Mariatequi v C.A. 205 SCRA 337

Marquino v IAC 238 SCRA 27

Matabuena v Cervantes 38 SCRA 284

Matubis v Paredes 109 Phil 709

Mendez v Eugenia 60 SCRA 82

Mendoza v CA 201 SCRA 675

Mendoza v Tunaga G.R. 86502 14 September 1991

Mirasol v Lim 59 Phil 701

Moore and Sons Mercantile Co v Wagner 50 Phil 128

Mondequillo v J. Breva 185 SCRA 766

Montoya v Ignacio 102 Phil 546

Nable Jose v Nable Jose 41 Phil 713

Navarro v Domogtoy 259 SCRA 29

Niňal v Bayadog G.R. 133778 14 March 2000

Ocampo v Florenciano L-13553 23 February 1960, 107 Phil 35

Onas v Javillo 59 Phil 733

Panuncio v Sula CA O.G. 129

Pascual v Martinez CA 37 O.G. 2418

Partosa-Jo v CA 18 December 1992

Paterno v Vda de Padilla 74 Phil 377

Pelayo v Lauron 12 Phil 453

People v Aragon 100 Phil 1033

People v Borromeo 133 SCRA 106

People v Genosa, GR 13591, January 15, 2004*

People v Jansen 54 Phil 176

People v Mendoza 95 Phil 843

People v Sansano and Ramos 59 Phil 73

People v Santiago 51 Phil 68

People v Schneckenburger 73 Phil 413

People v Sumilang 77 Phil 764

People v Zapata and Bondoc L-3047 16 May 1951

People’s Bank v Register of Deeds 60 Phil 167

Perez v Perez 109 Phil 64

Petition for Habeas Corpus of Angelie Anne Cervantes 169 SCRA 575

Philippine Association of Service Exporters v Hon. Ruben Torres, GR 10279 6 August 1992

Philippine National Bank v Qunitos 46 Phil 370

Pilapil v Ibay-Somera 174 SCRA 653

Pisalbon v Bejec 74 Phil 88

Powell v State 95 N.E. 660

Pugeda v Trias 4 SCRA 49

Quintana v Lerma 24 Phil 285

Ramirez and Marcaida v Redfern 49 Phil 849

Rep v CA and Hughes 227 SCRA 401

Rep. V J. Toledano G.R. 94147 6 June 1994

Republic v Court of Appeals and Castro 236 SCRA 257

Republic v Iyoy G.R. 152577 21 September 2005

Republic v Jennfier B. Cagandahan, G.R. No. 16676, 12 September 2008.

Republic v Molina 268 SCRA 198

Republic v Orbecido G.R. 154380 5 October 2005

Rivera v Batallones CA 40 O.G. 2090

Robbins v Robbins Am.Rep. 448

Rodriguez v De La Cruz 8 Phil 665

Rommel Jacinto Dantes Silverio v Republic, G.R. No. 174689, 22 October 2007

Rosales de Echaus v Gan 55 Phil 527

Ruiz v Atienza CA 40 O.G. 1903

Rural Bank v Court of Appeals L-32116 21 April 1981

Salita v Magtolis 233 SCRA 100

Samson v Yatco 1 SCRA 1145

Santos v Aranzado 16 SCRA 344

Santos v Bartolome 44 Phil 76

Sara v Guevarra CA 40 O.G. (1st Supp) 263

Sayson v CA 205 SCRA 321

Siari Valley Estate Inc. V Lucasan 109 Phil 294

Sideco v Aznar 92 Phil 952

Stasa Inc. V Liwanan 82 SCRA 879

Sy Loc Lieng v Sy Quia 16 Phil 137

Tamargo v CA 209 SCRA 17

Tanada v Tuvera, 146 SCRA 446

Tayug Rural Bank v CB, GR 46158, 28 November 1986

Tecson v SSS 3 SCRA 735

Tenchavez v Escano 15 SCRA 335

Tenebro v C.A. G.R. 150158, 18 February 2004

Testate of Narciso Padilla 3 SCRA 378

Tijing v GSIS 354 SCRA 17

Tiongco v Matig-a 44 O.G. No. 1, p.96

Tompkins 92 N.J. eg. 113 , 111 Atl. 599

Torres v Yaptinchay 28 SCRA 489

Tribania v Tribania G.R. 137359 13 September 2004

Tuason v Court of Appeals 256 SCRA 158

Tumulos v Fernandez G.R. 137650 12 April 2000

Ty v Court of Appeals, G.R. 127406, 27 November, 2000

U.S. v Joanino 27 Phil 477

U.S. v Palacio 33 Phil 208

Unson v Del Rosario 92 Phil 530

Uyquanco v CA 178 SCRA 684

Valdes v RTC 260 SCRA 221

Valdes v RTC of QC G.R. 122749 31 July 1996

Van Dorn v Romillo 139 SCRA 159

Vda de Conseguera v GSIS 37 SCRA 315

Vitug v Montemayor 91 Phil 286

Wiegel v Sempio Diy 143 SCRA 499

Yasin v Judge, Shari’a District Court 21 SCRA 606*

Zulueta v Pan-Am Airways 49 SCRA 1



1. People v Hernandez GR 1333926, 6 August 2003

2. People v Excija GR 119069, 5 July 1996

3. People v Campuhan GR 129433, 30 March 2000

4. Estrada v Escritor, A.M. No. P-02-1651, August 4, 2003 and A.M.No. P-02-1651, 2006

5. Guevara v Eala, A.C. No. 7136, 1 August 2007

6. Gualberto v Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 156254. June 28, 2005

7. Chi Ming Tsoi v Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 119190. January 16, 1997

8. Leonilo Antonio v Marie Yvonne F. Reyes, GR 155800, 10 March 2006

9. People v Genosa, G.R. No. 135981. January 15, 2004

10. Villavicencio v Lukban , G.R. No. L-14639, March 25, 1919

11. Rommel Jacinto Dantes Silverio v Republic of the Philippines, G.R. No. 174689, 22 October 2007

12. Republic of the Philippines v Jennfier B. Cagandahan, G.R. No. 16676, 12 September 2008.


United States

11. ACLU v Reno 929 F.Supp.824, 857 (E.D.Pa.1996)

12. SC of California Ruling on the six consolidated appeals: City and County of San Francisco v. State of California A110449 (Super.Ct. S.F. City & County, No. CGC-04-429539); Tyler v. State of California(A110450 Super. Ct. L.A. County, No. BS-088506); Woo v. Lockyer (A110451[Super. Ct. S.F. City & County, No. CPF-04-504038]); Clinton v. State of California (A110463 Super. Ct. S.F. City & County, No. CGC-04-429548); Proposition 22 Legal Defense

and Education Fund v. City and County of San Francisco (A110651 Super. Ct. S.F. City & County, No. CPF-04-503943); Campaign for California Families v. Newsom (A110652 Super. Ct. S.F. City & County, No. CGC-04-428794).


13. Re: Eve (1986) 31 D.L.R. (4th) 1 (S.C.C.)

14. Hogan v. Ontario (Minister of Health and Long-Term Care), [2006] HRTO 32 United Kingdom

15. R v Brown [1993] 2 All ER 75

16. R v Wilson (1996) 2 Cr App Rep 241

17. R. v. Konzani [2005] EWCA Crim 706.

South Africa

18. Minister of Health and others v Treatment Action Campaign [2002] 5 S. Afr. L. R. 721 (South African Constitutional Court).

Course Description

The course is an introductory course on feminist legal theory, tracing the roots of early feminist legal theory to the current and emerging multi-disciplinary explorations in post modern feminist legal theory as well as in relation to gender studies, queer theory state theory; to alternative conceptions of sexual morality and feminist ethical paradigms. Applications to both local/international engagements in law by women’s movements are incorporated and shall be emphasized as cases for study/analysis.


Assigned readings shall mostly be academic and scholarly articles (mostly from law journals and books). References shall also be made to local laws, foreign laws and international conventions plus both local and international jurisprudence. additional references may include news items and coverage of current issues in gender, sexuality and women’s rights. Readings shall be made available at the Reserved Section of the Law Library. Films shall also be viewed on selected class days for discussion. The highlighted titles are required readings under each heading and the additional readings are recommended readings. Additional

readings and cases may be assigned during the term.

Requirements: Assigned comments shall be graded as part of class participation. There will be no midterm examinations and no final exams. A 2500 word final paper/essay with footnotes/references at the end of the semester is required. The topic shall be subject to approval before the last day of dropping courses which is February 20. The break down for the computation of grades is as follows: (1) Attendance 15 %; (2) Class Participation (Recitation/Group Work) 35%; Final Paper (2500 word limit), 50 %


Part I. An Overview of Feminist Legal Theory (November 7-December 5)

(1) Gender and Law Workshop

(2) Situating Feminist Legal Theory

Part II. Women’s Human Rights (December 10-12)

(1) Background: Feminist Engagements of Human Rights

(2) Women’s Political Participation

(3) Women’s Economic Empowerment

(4) Reproductive Health

Part III. Gender & Sexuality (January 2-30)

(1) Sexual Rights, Queer Theory and Politics

(2) Sex and Gender in Family Law

(3) State Regulation of Sexualities and Sexual identities

Part IV. Critiques of Liberal Feminism (February 4-27)

(1) The Limits of Liberal Feminism

(2) Feminist Legal Methods

Part V. Integration Period: Focus on Selected Issues (March 4-20)

(1) Migration and Trafficking Debates

(2) Sex Work and Sexual Exploitation Debates

a. Violence Against Women

b. Pornography

c. Prostitution

(3) Gay Marriage

Download the complete Gender & Law Syllabus here:



Part I (1)

1. Maxine Sheets-Johnstone, “Corporeal Archetypes: Sex and Aggression,” The Roots of Power, Animate Form and Gendered Bodies, Open Court Publishing Co., (Chicago IL: 1994), p. 117-162

2. Rape: On Coercion and Consent, Chapter 9, Feminism Unbound, Catherine MacKinnon

3. Statutory Rape: A Feminist Critique of Rights Analysis, Frances Olsen, Texas Law Rev. (1984)

4. Susan Brownmiller, Against Our Will: Men, Women and Rape, Introduction and Chapter 2, Simon and Shuster, (New York: 1975) pp.1-22

5. Margaret Andersen, “The Social Construction of Gender,” Chapter 2, Thinking About Women: Sociological Perspectives on Sex and Gender, Mac Millan Publishing Co. (New York: 1993), pp.21-35

6. Mean Girls: The New York Times slips up on sexual math, Jordan Ellenberg, Slate Magazine, August 13, 2007 Available at:

Part I (2-A)

7. Carol Smart, “Feminism and the Power of Law,” excerpt from book of the same title (1989) from Women and Law, pp.291-302

8. Catherine MacKinnon, “Law in the Everyday Life of Women,” Women’s Lives, Men’s Laws, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, (2005)

9. Representations of Gender Inequality and Women’s Issues in Philippine Feminist Discourses, Asia Journal of Women’s Studies, Vol. II, No. 2, 2005, Carolyn I. Sobritchea

10. Lucinda M. Finley, “Breaking Women’s Silence in Law: The Dilemma of the Gendered Nature of Legal Reasoning,” The Notre Dame Law Review Vol. 64, Issue No. 5(1989)

11. Elizabeth Schneider and Nadine Taub, “Perspectives on Women’s Subordination and the Role of Law” In The Politics of Law, ed. DKairys, pp. 328–55. New York: Pantheon (1982)

12. Dianne Polan, “Toward a Theory of Law and Patriarchy, “ In The Politics of Law, ed. D Kairys. NewYork: Pantheon. See Weisberg 1993, pp.419–26 (1982)

13. Rifkin Janet, “Toward a Theory of Law and Patriarchy” Harv. Women’s Law J. 3:83–95 (1980)

Part I (2B)

14. Feminism, Marxism, Method and the State, Toward Feminist Jurisprudence: Toward a Feminist Theory of the State, Catherine MacKinnon, Cambridge, MA: Harv. Univ.Press (1989)

15. Gender, Nation, Colonialism: Lessons from the Philippines, Delia D. Aguilar, Women, Gender and Development, Zed Books (1995)

16. Lynne A. Haney, “Feminist State Theory: Applications to Jurisprudence,” Criminology, and the Welfare State. Annual Review of Sociology, 2000.

Part II (1)

17. Hilary Charlseworth and Christine Chinkin, Human Rights, Chapter 7, The Boundaries of International Law-A Feminist Analysis, Macnchester University Press, (2000)

Part II (2)

18. Women in Contemporary Philippine Local Politics, Proserpina D. Tapales Ph.D., Professor of Public Administration, University of the Philippines, Lecture delivered in the UCLA Center for Southeast Asian Studies Colloquium Series, October 11,2005

19. Verta Taylor and Nancy Whittier, The New Feminist Movements, Readings in Feminist Theory, pp. 533-538

Part II (3)

20. Gender Mainstreaming Trade and Development Policies, Gigi Francisco, Seeking Accountability on Women’s Human Rights, Women Debate the UN Millenium Development Goals, Women’s Internaional Coalition for Economic Justice, NYC (2004) p. 21

21. Leo Battad, The Labor Code Revisited: Prospects for Labor Law Reforms toward Women’s Economic Empowerment, A Gender Review of Selected Economic Laws in the Philippines, CEDAW UP Center for

Women’s Studies (2006) pp. 17-84

Part II (4)

22. Rebecca Cook, Bernard Dickens and Mahmoud Fathalla, Reproductive Health and Human Rights, Oxford University Press (Oxford: 2003), Part I, pp. 3-31; Part I (5) pp. 95-144

23. Rebecca J. Cook and Bernard M. Dickens, “Human Rights Dynamics of Abortion Law Reform,”Human Rights Quarterly, 25 Johns Hopkins University Press, (2003)

24. Alice Miller and Carole S. Vance, Sexuality, Human Rights and Health, Health and Human Rights, Vol. 7, No. 2 (2006)

25. Unintended Pregnancy and Induced Abortion in the Philippines: causes and Conzequences, Guttmacher Institute (2005)

26. Sonia Corrêa, From Reproductive Health to Human Rights, Achievements and Future Challenges,Harvard School of Public Health

Part III (1)

27. The Invention of Heterosexuality, Socialist Review Vol, 20 No. 1 (Jan-Feb 1990), Jonathan Ned Katz

28. Questions of Visibility, In Plainspeak, Issue No. 2, Oishik Sircar (2008)

29. Ignacio Saiz, Bracketing Sexuality: Human Rights and Sexual Orientation-A Decade of Development and Denial at the UN, Health and Human Rights, Vol. 7, No. 2 (2004)

30. God, Family and Country, The Philippine Debate on the Legalization of Divorce, Manuel Alberto Colayco, III, Ateneo Law Journal Vol 46, Issue No. 1 2001

Part III (3)

31. “When Doctors Torture: The Anus and the State in Egypt and Beyond,” Health and Human Rights, Vol. 7, No. 2 (2004), Scott Long, pp. 115-140

32. “Toward a Third-Wave Feminist Legal Theory: Young Women, Pornography and the Praxis of Pleasure,” School of Law, Michigan Journal of Gender & Law, Vol. 14, 2007, Bridget J. Crawford University of Pennsylvania Law School, Public Law Working Paper No. 06-31

Part IV (1)

33. West, R. 1998. Universalism, Liberal Theory and the Problem of Gay Marriage. Florida State University Law Review

34. Not your Average Sex Story: Critical Issues in Recent Human Rights Reporting Related to Sexuality, Health and Human Rights, Vol.7, No. 2, Sexuality Human Rights and Health, Cynthia Rothschild (2004) pp.165-177

Part IV (2A)

35. Donna Coker, Crime Control and Feminist Law Reform in Domestic Violence Law: A Critical Review, Buffalo Criminal Law Rev. Vol 4, (2001) pp. 801-860

36. John Pratt, Sex Crime and the New Punitiveness, Institute of Criminology, Victoria University, New Zealand (1999)

Part IV (2B)

37. Luisa Cabal, Monica Roa and Lilian Sepulveda Olivia, “What Role can International Litigation Play in the Promotion and Advancement of Reproductive Rights in Latin America?”, Health and Human Rights: An International Journal, Vol.7, No.1, (Boston: Harvard School of Public Health, 2004)

Part V (1)

38. Conflicts & Interests: Trafficking in Women and the Policies on Migration and Trafficking in the Philippines,” Carolina S. Ruiz Austria, Global Sex Trafficking, Edited by Karen Beeks and Delia Amir, Littlefield Publishers, U.S.A. 2005.

39. Oishik Sircar, “On the Move,” Introduction to InfoChange AGENDA, Issue no. 12 (2008)

40. Trafficking in Women in Canada: A Critical Analysis of the Legal Framework Governing Immigrant Live-in Caregivers and Mail-Order Brides, Faculty of Law Université Laval Québec City, Quebec CIDA Langevin L. and Belleau M.C., 2000

Part V (2A)

41. A. Miller. “Sexuality, violence against women, and human rights: women make demands and ladies get protection.” (2004) 7(2) Health and Human Rights 16–47.

42. Chapter 4, Battered Women’s Syndrome, The Implicit Relation of Psychology and Law, Women and Syndrome Evidence, Fona E. Raitt and Suzanne Zeedyk, Routledge (Philadelphia & London, 2000)

43. The Tragedy of Victimization Rhetoric: Resurrecting the “Native” Subject in International/Post-Colonial Feminist Legal Politics in Harvard Human Rights Journal, Vol.15, Ratna Kapur. Spring 2002

Part V (2B)

44. “Subversive Desire: The Thin Line between Pornography andErotica in Filipino Women’s Sexuality and Experience,” Women on Women’s Issues, Dr. Sylvia Estrada Claudio Monograph, Issue Vol. 1, Freely Speaking: No. 1 & 2 (Manila: Womenlead Foundation, Inc. November 9, 2004)

45. Pornified and Female Chauvenist Pigs (The Book Club Discussion on Slate Magazine: 6 entries by Laura Kipnis, Wendy Shalit and Meghan O’Rourke) Available at: